Agios Epiphanius on Pentecost and the Church


 “The Catholic Church, which has existed from the ages, is revealed most clearly in the incarnate, bodily form,  advent or coming of Christ”
        Saint Epiphanius, Bishop of Cyprus


Epiphanius was born in the village of Besanduk near Eleutheropolis, in Judea, (now Bayt Jibrin or the House of Gabriel, the Arabic bayt = beth in Hebrew) probably in 310 though dates here are always sketchy.  
Eleutheropolis previous to 200 AD, was Bet-Guvrin, Judea.
I could not find any map showing me Besanduk /Eleutheropolis  (Greek for City (polis) of the Free)  but I did find this archaeological site that shows many of the catacombs and the environs.  Very Mediterranean looking btw.
Agios Ephiphanus was naturally of Jewish descent, as he came from Judea, but nowhere is his original name listed.  He was by all accounts well educated. He became a Christian after seeing how a monk named Lucian gave away his belongings to a poor person. This compassion struck him and asked him to tell him more about his school, so that he may join. 
At this point in time, all Catholic (Catholic being universal and as there was just one Christian Church was the historical name.  After the schism it became Roman Catholic to denote that the western half was based in Rome; while the Easter half, or Eastern Orthodox Catholic, were based in Constantinople) monks belonged to just one monastic order.  That is still true today in the Orthodox church but not in the Roman Catholic order,  where you will see Sisters of Mercy, Franciscans, Benedictines and such.
In the Orthodox church the only difference between monks and the clergy is their “tonsure” or haircut.  The third type of tonsure is the one we receive at baptismal.  I imagine for adults, particularly women, it is small cut at the ends, but to be honest I do not know.  I will have to ask a friend who recently converted at Pascha what she got. She, Anastassia for the anastasi, joined the Coptic Orthodox Church.

After baptism, Aghios Epiphanius became a member of a monastery in Egypt under the guidance of the elder St. Hilarion the Great. In 367, Epiphanius was chosen by a council in Salamis to be their bishop and the following year he was elected to the cathedra of Cyprus, a position he held until his repose. 
Aghios Epiphanius (named for Epiphany) participated in the synod of 376 in Antioch where questions about the Trinity were debated against the heresy of Apollinarianism which maintained that Christ was like the god Apollo,  half divine and half immortal but, this is the key, with “no free will”.

Apollinarius (born c. 310—died c. 390)  proved his point by creating his own Old Testament in the form of Homeric and Pindaric  (the former of heroic and the latter of lyric poetry in Greek) poetry and a  New Testament in the style of Platonic dialogues, after the Roman emperor Julian had forbidden Christians to teach the classics.

Apollinaris in his defense, said that he created Apollinarianism to  combat Arianism, a polytheistic explanation of the trinity, God, Christ & the Holy Ghost (Pentecost) as each being a separate and individual godhead. 

Nevertheless he was excommunicated  but a  Greek Nicene congregation at Laodicea chose him as bishop (c. 361) as he was well versed. Many of these Greek heretics later created and embraced Mohammedanism, sad to say.
Aghios Epiphanius, blessed be his memory, died in 403 AD.

.